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Lexapro

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Lexapro: Full Lexapro Description -  Click here - Source: FDA

Lexapro: Increased Risk of Neonatal Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Click here - Source: FDA ALERT [7/2006]

Lexapro: Patient Information Click here - Source: FDA

Lexapro: Lexapro News Click here

Partial Lexapro description:

Pharmacokinetics

The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of Lexapro are linear and dose-proportional in a dose range of 10 to 30 mg/day. Biotransformation of Lexapro is mainly hepatic, with a mean terminal half-life of about 27-32 hours. With once-daily dosing, steady state plasma concentrations are achieved within approximately one week. At steady state, the extent of accumulation of Lexapro in plasma in young healthy subjects was 2.2-2.5 times the plasma concentrations observed after a single dose. The tablet and the oral solution dosage forms of Lexapro oxalate are bioequivalent.

Absorption and Distribution

Following a single oral dose (20 mg tablet or solution) of Lexapro, peak blood levels occur at about 5 hours. Absorption of Lexapro is not affected by food.

The absolute bioavailability of citalopram is about 80% relative to an intravenous dose, and the volume of distribution of citalopram is about 12 L/kg. Data specific on escitalopram are unavailable.

The binding of Lexapro to human plasma proteins is approximately 56%.

Metabolism and Elimination

Following oral administrations of Lexapro, the fraction of drug recovered in the urine as Lexapro and S - demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) is about 8% and 10%, respectively. The oral clearance of Lexapro is 600 mL/min, with approximately 7% of that due to renal clearance.

Lexapro is metabolized to S-DCT and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT). In humans, unchanged Lexapro is the predominant compound in plasma. At steady state, the concentration of the Lexapro metabolite S-DCT in plasma is approximately one-third that of Lexapro. The level of S-DDCT was not detectable in most subjects. In vitro studies show that Lexapro is at least 7 and 27 times more potent than S - DCT and S-DDCT, respectively, in the inhibition of serotonin reuptake, suggesting that the metabolites of Lexapro do not contribute significantly to the antidepressant actions of Lexapro. S-DCT and S-DDCT also have no or very low affinity for serotonergic (5-HT1-7) or other receptors including alpha- and beta-adrenergic, dopamine (D1-5), histamine (H1-3), muscarinic (M1-5), and benzodiazepine receptors. S-DCT and S-DDCT also do not bind to various ion channels including Na+, K+, Cl-, and Ca++ channels.

A full description can be found Click here - Source: FDA

To visit the Lexapro manufactures site Click here

Other Lexapro info from the FDA Click here

Study Of Drug Therapy For Compulsive Buying Yields A Puzzle

Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine say they are puzzled by findings from their new study indicating that an antidepressant, which previously showed promise in treating a behavioral disorder known as compulsive buying, did not result in a sustained benefit for the patients who took it.

The medication is Lexapro, a commonly prescribed antidepressant sold under the brand name Lexapro. In the study, researchers found no difference in the relapse rate of people with compulsive-buying disorder when they continued to take Lexapro compared with those who had been switched to a placebo. Those results are perplexing to lead author Lorrin Koran, MD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences emeritus, because he had done a similar study in 2003 that found compulsive-buying patients improved stably after taking another antidepressant medication, citalopram, in which Lexapro is the active ingredient.

"It was a shock that, when we did the trial again with the active ingredient, it didn't work exactly the same way. It should have," said Koran, who also led the 2003 study. The results of the latest double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be published in the April issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.

Koran said the unexpected result from the new study may in part be due to the small number of participants in the double-blind phase of the trial, which involved just 17 subjects whose buying behavior had markedly improved in the initial stage of the trial when they were all taking Lexapro. Of the nine randomly assigned to take a placebo in the later part of the trial, six relapsed, while five of eight continuing on Lexapro relapsed.

But the study size is likely not the only factor influencing the outcome of the trial.

"I don't think we're dealing with one pure biological disorder," said Koran. "We're dealing with a behavior that has different biological roots in different people and therefore we may have had very different groups of people in the two studies."

In the 2003 study, 24 patients were all initially given citalopram for the open-label portion of the study, during which they all knew they were taking citalopram. Fifteen of those patients reported marked improvements in their buying behaviors. For the second portion of that trial, these 15 patients were randomly assigned to take either citalopram or a placebo without knowing which one they were taking. Of seven patients who continued taking the medication, all seven maintained their improvement, while five of the eight patients receiving a placebo relapsed.

People suffering from compulsive buying disorder are preoccupied with shopping for unneeded items and are frequently unable to resist purchasing them. The problem is not a simple lack of willpower, said Koran, who described it as being as real a disorder as other impulsive behaviors such as alcoholism and pathological gambling. Sufferers of the disorder commonly wind up with closets or rooms filled with unwanted purchases, amassing thousands of dollars of debt in the process and often damaging their relationships by lying to loved ones about their purchases.

A recent nationwide, random-sample telephone survey conducted by Koran and his colleagues indicated that compulsive buying appeared to affect nearly 6 percent of the U.S. population, with nearly equal proportions of men and women affected.

Koran said a larger double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial is needed to reach a conclusive result regarding the effectiveness of Lexapro in treating patients with compulsive buying disorder.

He suggested future clinical trials might be able to yield more information if they were combined with imaging studies of the patients' brains. He cited recent work by Brian Knutson, PhD, assistant professor of psychology and neuroscience, whose recent imaging studies suggest that scientists might be able to directly visualize brain activity related to compulsive purchases.

"We would look for a difference in the brain activation patterns of those who respond to the drug vs. those who don't," said Koran.

The inconclusive nature of the results from the latest trial of Lexapro should not discourage anyone suffering from compulsive buying from seeking treatment, since several types of treatment seem to be helpful, Koran emphasized.

Other co-authors include Hugh Brent Solvason, MD, PhD, assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences; Nona Gamel, clinical research manager; and Emily Smith, clinical research coordinator.

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by Stanford University Medical Center.

Lexapro side effects and Lexapro withdrawal side effects

  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Anorexia – No longer having a desire to eat.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Apothous Stomatitis – Painful red and swollen open sores on a mucus membrane of the mouth commonly called a canker sore.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Ataxia – Loss of the ability to move the body with coordination.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Arterial Fibrillation – A condition of abnormal twitching of the muscles in the blood vessels that moves the oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.  The unusual twitching is rapid and irregular and replaces the normal rhythm of contraction of the muscle, which sometimes causes a lack of circulation and pulse.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Blood Cholesterol Increased – An abnormal condition where there is a greater amount in the blood of the oily/fatty substances known as cholesterol.   Cholesterol is a necessary part of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates).  Because cholesterol only slightly dissolves in water, it can build up on the walls of the blood vessels, therefore blocking/decreasing the amount of blood flow, which causes blood pressure to go up.  If not corrected, this condition is associated with coronary artery disease.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Blood Creatinine Increased – A greater than normal number of creatinine or muscular chemical waste molecules in the blood.  Creatinine plays a major role in energy production in muscles.  Since creatinine levels are normally maintained by the kidneys, Blood Creatinine Increased is an indicator of kidney malfunction or failure.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Blood in Stool – The blood that is in your bowel movement usually comes from any place along your digestive tract (from your mouth to your anus).  The stool can appear black and foul-smelling (usually from the upper part of your digestive tract) or red or maroon-colored (usually from the large intestine area).  Hemorrhoids are the usual cause for blood in the bowels.

8.   Lexapro withdrawal - Bundle Branch Block Right – These are specialized cells in the upper right heart chamber and are the heart’s pacemaker.  They send electrical signals to the heart that keeps it beating or contracting regularly.  Normally the signal goes to the lower heart chambers at the same time through the bundle of His (hiss) on both the left and right sides of the heart, so the lower chambers contract at the same time.  When the bundle is damaged on the right side, the signal does not fire at the same time as the left, which changes the pace of blood flow.  This can lead to a person fainting.

  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Cardiac Failure – A heart disorder where the heart does not function as usual and may completely stop working.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Cardiac Failure Congestive – The body is asking for the heart to supply more blood than it is capable of producing and maintaining.  Normally, a body can tolerate an increased amount of work for quite some time.  The condition is characterized by weakness, shortness of breath, and a fluid build-up in the body tissues causing swelling.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Cold Sweat – The skin is clammy and moist and you feel chilled.  This is a reaction to a shock or pain as well as to fear and nervousness.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Colitis – A condition where the large intestine becomes irritated from the use of the drug.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Coronary Artery Disease – A condition where the blood vessels that mainly carry the blood away from the heart become clogged up or narrowed usually by fatty deposits.  The first symptom is pain spreading from the upper left body caused by not enough oxygen reaching the heart.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Dehydration – An extreme loss of water from the body or the organs of the body as in sickness or not drinking enough fluids.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Diplopia – The condition where a person is looking at one object and instead of normally seeing just the one object he sees two.  This is also called double vision.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Diverticulitis – There are pouches or sacs on the inside of the intestines that look like fingers.  This increases the area for the body to absorb nutrients as they pass through the intestines.  These sacs become irritated and swollen and end up trapping waste that would normally be eliminated, causing pain and constipation.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Dysarthria – The inability to control the mouth muscles when forming words so the words are not clearly spoken and heard.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Dyslipidemia – The normal fat metabolism in the blood is interfered with.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Dysphagia – Trouble swallowing or the inability to swallow.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Ecchymosis – When a blood vessel breaks and creates a purple discoloration of the skin.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Edema – An abnormal build up of excess fluids in the cells, tissues, and the spaces between the tissues creating swelling.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Edema Peripheral – The abnormal build up of fluids in the tissues of the ankles and legs causing painless swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet.  If you squeeze the swollen area it leaves an indentation on the skin for a few minutes.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Ejaculation Delayed – The man is not able to release sperm either during sexual intercourse or with manual stimulation in the presence of his sexual partner in spite of his wish to do so.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Ejaculation Dysfunction – A condition where the man has one or more of the following symptoms:  He is not able to have an erection, not able to have an orgasm, has a decreased interest in sex, is sexually inhibited, or it is painful to ejaculate sperm.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Erectile Dysfunction – Incapable of having sexual intercourse.  Even though a man desires sex he is inhibited in his sexual activity and is unable to have or maintain an erection of the penis.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Erythema – a skin redness caused by the swelling with blood of the tiny blood vessels of the skin as in burns.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Erythematous Rash – Redness of the skin from the swelling of the tiny blood vessels with skin irritation (itching, burning, tingling, pain) and breakouts (eruptions).

 

  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Esophageal Stenosis Acquired – The tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach narrows.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Exfoliative Dermatitis – The unusual and not normal condition of scaling and shedding of the skin cells.  The skin is usually red colored.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Face Edema – The tissues of the face become swollen.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Feeling Jittery – A physical sensation of nervous unease.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Gastric Irritation – An inflamed and sore stomach.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Gastric Ulcer – An open, irritated, and infected sore in the wall of the stomach.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Gingivitis – Sore, swollen and red gums in the mouth that bleed easily.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Glaucoma – The delicate nerve to the eye, the optic nerve, becomes easily damaged with the build-up of excess fluid pressure within the eyeball.  The first sign of glaucoma is loss of peripheral (side) vision.  It can progress to total blindness.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Hepatic Steatosis – Excessive amounts of fat in the liver.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Hyperhidrosis – The triggering of an excess of sweat being produced on the soles of the feet, the palms, or the underarms which can cause embarrassment or losing grip on a pen or other items.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Hyperkeratosis – An abnormal enlargement of the skin tissues causing the skin cells to increase in size.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Hyperlipidemia – An abnormally high number of fat cells in the blood.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Hypertriglyceridemia – Too many triglycerides in the blood. 

Triglycerides are three fatty acids bound together in one molecule stored by the body and available to create high levels of energy when used. 

  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Hypoesthesia – A partial loss of sensation or general loss of awareness.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Impaired Gastric Emptying – The contents of the stomach are not passed into the intestines as normal due to the stomach losing the muscular strength to do so.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Increased White Blood cell Count – This is an increase in the number of cells in the blood that are responsible for the removal of bacteria and other unwanted particles.  They fight disease and infection by enclosing foreign particles and removing them.  An example of a disease that would increase white blood cell count would be Leukemia.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Insomnia – Not able to fall asleep or sleeping for a shorter time than desired, thus not being able to properly rest and feeling un-refreshed.  As a result, a person can become irritable, have difficulty concentrating and feel a lack of energy.  This can be caused by stimulants such as by caffeine or drugs or by mental anxiety and stress.  Mental stress can be communicated and relieved.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Irritable Bowel Syndrome – A painful condition where either the muscles or the nerves of the lower intestines, are not responding normally.  This results in an alternating condition of diarrhea followed by constipation, back and forth.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca – A condition where the outer coating of the eyeball is dry because of a decrease in the normal amount of tears in the eye.  As a result, the eyeball and inside of the eyelid thickens and hardens sometimes causing the vision to be less sharp.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Leukopenia – An unnaturally low number of white blood cells circulating in the blood.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Loose Stools – The bowel movement is runny instead of formed.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Lower Abdominal Pain – A hurtful irritation of the nerve endings in the area of the hipbones housing the lower digestive tract.  Pain usually means tissue damage.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Lymphadenopathy – The lymph nodes, where the immune cells are located, become larger than is normal because of a high concentration of white blood cells.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Macular Degeneration – The gradual loss of central vision, which is the sharpest vision while peripheral eyesight, is unaffected.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Maculopathy – An abnormal condition of the yellow spot of the eye, which is located in the center of the inner lining of the eyeball and connected to the main nerve to the eye and is responsible for sharp vision.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Mania – Unusually irrational, excessive and/or exaggerated behavior or moods ranging from enthusiasm, sexuality, gaiety, impulsiveness and irritability to violence.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Melena – Abnormally darkly colored stools as a result of hemorrhaging in the digestive tract where the blood has interacted with the digestive juices creating the dark color in the bowel movement.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Micturition Urgency – A sudden desire to urinate usually followed by leakage.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Mood Swings – An emotional shifting as from a state of happiness to a state of depression for a period of time.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Myocardial Infarction – The blood going to the heart is delayed or stopped causing middle muscle tissue in the heart wall to die.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Nasopharyngitis – Irritation, redness and swelling tissues in the nose and the tube leading from the mouth to the voice box as well as the tubes leading to the ears.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Nephropathy – An abnormally functioning or diseased kidney.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Nervousness – Jumpy, jittery, anxious, and troubled with an irritable temperament.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Night Sweats – The water-salt, waste product the skin releases is called sweat or perspiration.   With night sweats you become wide awake in the middle of the night shivering and cold and wet with your sheets/pajamas soaked in perspiration making it difficult to go back to sleep.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Nightmare – Dreams that make you afraid or leave feelings of fear, terror, and upset long after waking up.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Orgasm Abnormal – Unable to have an orgasm with normal sexual stimulation.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Oropharyngeal Swelling – A swelling in the area from the soft part of the roof of the mouth to the back of the mouth.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Pain in Extremity – A painful feeling in the legs, arms, hands, and feet.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Pharyngolaryngeal Pain – Pain in the area of the respiratory tract (organs of breathing) from the throat to the voice box and above the windpipe.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Photopsia – A condition where a person see lights, sparks or colors in front of your eyes.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Photosensitivity Reaction – An exaggerated sunburn reaction that is not normal in proportion to the amount of exposure to the light.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Pollakiuria – Urinating much more frequently than normal – as often as once every five to fifteen minutes.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Pressure of Speech – A condition where the individual cannot voice his ideas fast enough with the pressure of there being not enough time to say it.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Pruritic Rash – Extremely itchy, red, swollen bumps on the skin.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Pyrexia – Fever or the increase in body temperature that is usually a sign of infection.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Retinal Detachment – The thin layer lining the back of the eyeball (the retina) detaches from the back of the eyeball.  This thin layer is like the film of a camera because it sends the images a person views to the brain.  When it detaches it causes a reduced ability to see.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Rigors – Shivering or shaking of the body as if chilled, preventing normal responses.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Skin Ulcer – An open sore or infected skin eruption with swelling, redness, pus, and irritation.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Sleep Disorder – These are a list of sleep disorders such as teeth grinding, insomnia, jet lag, sleep walking, abnormally falling asleep during the middle of a conversation after a full night’s rest, uncontrolled body motions keeping one awake, etc.
     
  2. Lexapro withdrawal - Suicide, Completed – An attempted attack on oneself that is life threatening resulting in death.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Upper Respiratory Tract Infection – Where the organs of breathing near the mouth such as the nose and sinuses, become infected and are usually treated by antibiotics.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Urinary Hesitation – Hard to start or hard to continue emptying one’s bladder.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Urinary Incontinence – Urinating without intending to do so because of a weakening of the muscles in the hip area from the drug affecting the nerves or the drug blocking a persons thinking process.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Urinary Retention – The inability to completely empty the bladder despite having the urge to do so.  This can lead to infections or damage to the urinary organs.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Urine Flow Decreased – Dehydration of the body causing a lesser flow of urine than normal with the body reabsorbing the waste.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Urine Output Decreased – A condition where the output of urine produced in a 24-hour period is less than 500 ml.
     
  1. Lexapro withdrawal - Weight Decreased – Unintentional weight loss.
     
  2. Lexapro withdrawal – Weight Increased – An unusual, usually rapid weight increase.